On the hills between Potenza and Melfi, with a view of the imposing outline of Mount Vulture, the extinct volcano of Basilicata, Filiano retains one of the oldest and most surprising artifacts of Italy.In 1966, in some caves on the ” Tuppo dei Sassi” ( the Stony Hill), some red ochre paintings of the Mesolitic period were found, showing a hunt with men, deers and goats. Filiano, at the crosspoint of old roads as Via Erculea, a branch of Appia Antica, is located at the center of an extraordinary and fascinating territory. Only a few miles away from the town, the Riserva Agromonte Spacciaboschi protects the ruins of Acermontis, a medieval village where a church, a fortress and walls can be identified. The name of the town is a reminder of wool spinning, an important activity in an area where sheep-herding was and still is a fundamental asset. The sheep tracks of Toppa, Spina-Serra Cocozza, Inforchia and Ripa Rossa are very interesting to walk. The “pecorino” a sheep milk cheese made in Filiano is one of the most prized products of Basilicata. The most beautiful church in town is Santa Maria del Rosario, built in 1830, a one-nave architecture with a graceful marble altar. Not far, the church dedicated to Saint Joseph . Unpretentious but suggestive are two small churches dedicated to Saint Anthony in the Sterpeto and Scalera districts. Noteworthy is Palazzo Corbo, an historical country mansion at Iscalunga.